Wednesday, January 24, 2018

Arm-Bar Application 5

Arm-Bar Application
This is the second “combination” technique that we teach to our student's. This is a simple, but often miss-applied technique. This combination teaches the student the correct manor of application and enactment of it's use. Although many students have seen the technique (and may very well have utilized forms of it) this will describe the details of it's application. In this explanation, we will use the uke's Right arm for the (following) example of it's application.

Establishing Initial Placement
We will start with the tori holding the uke's Right wrist, while standing slightly behind, and to the Right of the uke, using the hand furthest from the uke's body (in this example, the tori's Right hand). It needs to be mentioned, that when the tori takes hold of the uke's wrist, the tori should make note of the 2 bones of the uke's forearm (the ulnar, and radius). Using the grip (using only the thumb and fore-finger) of those two bones, allows for the tori to rotate the arm and then be conscious of the possible directions that the uke can/can't bend that arm's elbow (additionally, the tori will then be aware of which direction is against the elbow and how the Uke is/isn't able to bend that elbow). The tori's (closer) Left arm, will lay the side/back of that wrist, against the lower tricep tendon of the held arm (by placing it slightly above the elbow, on the dorsal side of the arm). In addition to the forearm's placement, the elbow of that same arm (the tori's Leftt arm), will lay against the uke's back to provide additional feed-back (on any resistive motions the uke may attempt) and/or to apply any required pressure there.

Enacting the “Break-over”
After taking hold of the uke's wrist, the Tori will begin with motioning that wrist in a circular (in this instance "counter-clockwise") action. The motion will first move the uke's arm forward (to the front of the uke), then motion it towards the opposite side of the uke, and then be "pulled" back (in a small circular motion). During this circular action, when the arm begins to be pulled back (towards the uke's right side), the tori's Left arm, will roll the uke's tricep muscle tendon towards the front of the uke. As this begins to cause the uke to lean forward, the tori will lift the hand being held with their own Right hand, straight up, in front of the tori. This lifting action, is pivoted off of the tori's Left forearm(acting as it's pivot point/fulcrum). The motion should NOT be attempted to only be accomplished by forcing/striking with the Left arm (in this example) down/forward (nor ever, from striking the back of the uke's arm). The pivot point/fulcrum, is only to act for that purpose, and not utilized in an attempt to initially force the person down. The raising of the wrist is what will achieve this purpose. Once the uke has been bent-over (at the waist), then, the tori's Left forearm can be used to apply additional pressure to the uke's tricep tendon (to assist in lowering the uke to the floor).

Take-Down Methods
Once the uke “breaks-over” (and their knee's are "buckled"), it will be necessary to take them to the ground. There are several methods to accomplish this. The “first” (and most obvious) is to apply pressure to the back of the uke's arm (slightly above the elbow (this is actually applying pressure to the tendon of the tricep muscle). By varying the angle of that pressure, it's possible to direct the uke's direction of break down.
If the situation necessitates it (if the Tori is experiencing difficulties), Tori can additionally knee spear the uke's thigh, in order to achieve the "knee-buckle" response (by the uke). Once that is done, the tori can apply pressure to the upper back of the uke's arm while dragging the uke sideways (to force them off-balance).
It's also possible to direct the uke upward (initially) from rolling the uke's tricep muscle towards the uke's back, and continue circling this pressure around the uke's arm, until the uke is raising up (to stand on the ball's of their feet in order to comply with the applied pressure), this should only be maintained for a (very) short period of time, before reversing the applied pressure, forcing the uke to the ground.
In extream circumstances, the arm-bar's pressure can be reversed (using the “held” hand as the fulcrum point and applying pressure to the upper arm to accomplish a take-down. This method tends to be dependent upon physical strength, so should ONLY be attempted for comparison reasons (preferably, only in a class environment).

Monday, January 1, 2018

Double Forearm Strike 4

Double Forearm Strike/Shoulder Lock
This is the first motion (that is initially taught) as being side dependent (ie. It makes a difference whether the uke strikes with the Right, or the Left hand). The description is identical, except the applied technique will require/consider which of the tori's hands will be considered either the forward, or rear hand (during technique's application).
For this explanation, the tori's Right hand, will be considered to be the dominant side, with the Left being the non-dominant side.
Practice of the motion begins with the tori and the uke standing “face to face”, at an arm's length distance from each other (confirmed, by the tori placing his hand on the shoulder of the uke to establish proper practice “distance”).
Practice is began with both parties having their hands at their sides. When the uke begins their (Right hand, in this example) strike motion, the tori should motion their same-side hand straight up , until the forearm is (essentially) vertical, and continues in an arcing motion (medially) across and downward ( parrying the uke's strike with it's motion), towards the opposite side, moving the striking hand towards waist level. The tori's other hand, should be raised to strike the uke's (striking) arm above their elbow.
Contact is made slightly above the elbow (causing the uke's arm to bend). The tori's (initially) "parrying" hand, will motion the uke's parried hand, towards the uke (thereby moving the uke's previously parried hand towards themselves) which aids in bending the uke's arm (using the tori's forward hand as a fulcrum to do so). The tori's rear (closest to themselves) hand will continue with it's motion by releasing it's contact with the parried forearm, then raising, until that hand can wrap behind, and above the uke's (originally) punching arm's elbow (enacting an elbow-lock on the punching arm). As this is accomplished, the tori will withdraw their Right arm (which can be utilized for various optional (applications). As the tori's forward hand is withdrawn from the uke's punching elbow (and replaced by their Left hand), it will circle the uke's elbow (upward, and being done on the tori's side of the captured uke's arm) and tori has the option of either following up with assisting the elbow-lock (which should now be in place to do so), or with executing a Neck-strike to the Right-side of the now exposed uke's neck. To enact the "elbow-lock", the tori need only raise their own left elbow (creating pressure upon the uke's shoulder joint). This action will cause the uke to bend forward, and allow the uke to motion their body to cause the uke to colapse (to their knee's).
Note should be made of the uke's responses (body-motion, knee-buckle etc.) in reaction to the application of the technique.

If the tori placed their "wrapped" hand (instead of being correctly "above" the uke's elbow, has located it closer to the uke's shoulder, the tori should utilize their free hand, and drag the hand down closer to the uke's elbow. Doing so, does several things. First, it correctly positions the hand, second, the dragging motion activates nerves that assist in relaxing, and bending the uke's elbow.

Though initially practiced as a "side-directed" motion (Left or Right), the motion can remain to be a viable defensive response.

If the uke's arm motion is reversed (and were mistakenly assumed to be the uke's use of the Right arm, and they instead utilized their Left arm to perform the strike), the tori's defensive application is (initially) executed slightly different.
The tori's arm motions begin the same as before, but (having realized the mistake made) the tori's Left hand (now) motion's towards the uke's mid-section, performing a downward (shuto-like/side-slap?) scooping strike to the the uke's solar plexus region. The tori's Right hand, motions up and forward (thereby) creating an fprward parry (to only slightly deflect the uke's now striking Left hand). The tori's Right hand should then circle the uke's Left (striking) hand/arm (which will motion that arm downward, and across the tori's body) to the tori's Left (lower) side. The tori's Left hand should have (during this transition) grabbed the uke's Left wrist, while their Right hand motioned (circled?) to a vertical attitude (as it was when first beginning the parry), which should have placed the back of that hand's arm, against the uke's lower tricep muscle's tendon (into a standard arm-bar application).

Once both parties are confident with the actions being learned, then the tori will include a straight kick in combination with the beginning motions, or prior to a take-down attempt.. Doing so, will (often) amplify the effects of the uke's body motion, and/or the applied technique (depending upon the timing of the kick's application).
There are multiple follow-ups available, and student's should be encouraged to experiment with discovering “what” would work best for them (be it Tuite, arm-locks or strikes) for use in varying circumstances.
Practice (as always) should begin at a slow speed, until the tori is confident with the required actions, and the uke is made aware of the tori's planned actions (to assist in preventing accidental injury) Practice speed can be increased, so long as both parties are comfortable with doing so.

It should be remembered, that the primary goal (of any defensive action) is to first, prevent the user (tori) from being struck. We have student's practice these techniques to familiarize them with the various (options available for) possible responses and that may be applicable to them. None, are necessarily any better, than another. Individual circumstance, and comfort of execution should determine a student's preference. 

Thursday, December 28, 2017

Raising Hand Parry 2

Raising Hand Parry (Single and 2-hand)
This motion initially has a single hand raising (Palm-Up) to shoulder height, rotating to (Palm-Down) motion towards the center-line and lowering until it is again at waist level, and continuing downward until once again in-line with the shoulder (though now Palm-Out).
The 2-hand version of this motion has numerous interpretations. It can represent a 2-hand push defense, a single-hand "trap" (upon the tori's chest), or as a pre-contact situation where the aggressor's (single or dual) Pushing hand is "caught" prior to reaching the defender's chest.
The second half of the motion can represent an abdominal "flick" (causing the aggressor to retreat their hip's) and/or represent the completion of one of the prior motions.
When the student includes rotation with (any of) these actions, it will modify (as well as include a level of practicality to) those motions. Footwork and over-all body positioning will effect the practicality of the instructed motions. There are no techniques that do not include a degree of "entire body" application to the instructed motions.
Each of these defensive motions will be individually addressed and practiced by the student.

Parry (capture)/Straight Kick/Neck Strike
This technique is another expansion (variation) of the Rising-Hand Parry/Strike combination.
Practice of the motion Begins with the tori and the uke standing face to face, at an arm's length distance from each other (confirmed, by the tori placing his hand on the shoulder of the uke to establish distance).
Practice is began with both parties having their hands at their sides. When the uke begins their strike, the tori should motion their weak-side hand straight up (raising the arm at the shoulder, until the hand is at the shoulder level, and continues in an arcing motion down (ideally, parrying the uke's intended strike with it's motion), and across the tori's body, to the student's center-line and continuing to tori's waist level. The tori's strong-side forearm should cross the body low by crossing and raising to the inside of the weak-side's hand motion.
These Two motions are done together and either in conjunction with, (or slightly before) performing a Straight kick. This kick has the potential/probability of causing the uke to lean forward, which in turn, assists the tori in the follow-up Neck Strike (done with the tori's Strong-Side Hand).
There are multiple follow-ups available, and student's should be encouraged to experiment with discovering what would work best for them (be it Tuite, arm-locks or strikes) in varying circumstances.

Parry/ Forearm Strike-Neck Strike 3

Parry/ Forearm Strike-Neck Strike
This motion introduces the student to deadening of an aggressor's striking arm (via an atemi strike) and additionally includes a neck strike. If the uke has any preexisting neck injury or soreness, practice of this technique should not be attempted.
Practice of this combination (as with the majority of others) begins with the tori and the uke standing face to face, at an arms length/distance from each other (this should be confirmed, by the tori placing his hand on the shoulder of the uke to establish proper practice distance).

Technique practice is began with both parties having their hands at their sides. When the uke begins their strike, the tori should motion their near-side hand straight up (bending at the elbow, until the (open) hand is (essentially) horizontal, and (only) contacts the aggressor's striking arm (acting as more of a inward/outward parry than a strike). This should be done in conjunction with the tori rotating (their hips and torso) to face the approaching strike attempt. The tori's counter-side hand motion is performed in conjunction to the initial hand's parrying action (and additionally, in case the initial hand's motion should miss the uke's strike, can provide an additional "cover"), crossing the groin, waist, chest and face, and continuing until it is vertical. That hand (once becoming vertical) continues forward, and downward ,striking the uke's forearm, (with the intent of numbing it) utilizing the back(dorsal)-side of their forearm to strike the top of the uke's (striking) forearm with. Should the tori's same-side hand miss it's initial deflection of the striking arm, the secondary hand should be in position to strike/deflect the aggressor's arm, providing a minimal level of deflection itself. When applicable, the initial forearm strike should be immediately followed by the tori striking the same side of the uke's neck (i.e. if the uke's Right arm is struck, then the Right side of the Uke's neck should be struck).

A variety of follow-up striking methods are available, and students are encouraged to experiment with them until they discover which are more comfortable/practical (depending on individual situations).

In the event that the uke utilizes the arm opposite (from the tori's parrying hand/arm), the tori's (initial) parrying hand will not have sufficient reach to parry the attacking limb of the uke. For this reason, the tori's dominant hand will still perform it's initial (outward) striking action, in conjunction with a rotation away from the strike. As this strike is being done, the tori's initial hand modifies it's motion to be utilized as a downward (open-handed) strike to the mid-section (solar plexus) of the uke.
Though able to be used as shown, this strike is usually done with emphasis being on using the edge of the hand, and scooping in a forward and downward manner.
At the same time, as the Right hand complete it's outside parry, it will then circle (over the top of) the uke's striking Left arm, further parrying it (across the tori's front) forward, which will motion the strike rearward and/or downward, while the tori rotates his body position towards the (actual) striking side. The tori's arm should be extended maintaining consistant contact with the uke's striking arm while doing this. Once the tori's hand/arm is extended, The tori's arm will rotate, so as to parry the uke's arm towards the opposite side. Simultaineously, the tori's other hand has (if possible) completed it's strike, it then retracts to grasp the uke's (striking hand's) wrist (which was motioned to that side, by the parrying hand (as described above). With the tori holding the wrist of the uke's striking hand (with the opposite side hand) the tori will enact an arm-bar using the near-side's forearm (placed as defined elsewhere). This motion (the “arm-bar” ) can be supplemented with either a neck strike (of several optional forms/locations) or can be utilized to (only) apply controlling (point) applications.

These two arm motions (and strikes) must be performed as quickly as possible (with as little time-lapse as possible between them). The uke's response (to the initial forearm strike) will cause them to bend at the waist, towards the impacted arm and withdraw that stricken arm, turning that side away from the tori (allowing only a short amount of time to be able to strike that same side of the uke's neck).
If/when the uke chooses to utilize a "high" (wound up) strike (commonly achieved by initially pulling thier striking fist up or behind their own shoulder prior to projecting it forward) for the tori to strike the aggressor's forearm it then becomes somewhat impractical. This commonly occurs if/when the aggressor attempts to deliver a "Hay-maker" (or "Hook"ing punch). In that circumstance it would be more practical to strike the aggressor's bicep (of their striking arm). The combination of their upper arm's forward motion in combination with the tori's (own) forward strike will make this strike more efficient. The previously practiced "follow-up" strike (to the Uke's neck) can still be attempted, though the practicality of doing so may be impaired by the uke's (physical) response from having performed this particular strike.
By (the Tori) having performed a straight punch (upon the uke's arm), it is easier (for the tori) to have directly withdrawn their strike, therefor the performance of a straight-strike/punch (in stead of "sideways" strike) to the uke's neck would be more practical in that circumstance. Much of that decision will be based upon what "footwork" the student will have utilized during the delivery of the initially used motion.

Additionally, it is not uncommon for the uke to bend one, if not both knee's (in an effort to establish their own stability) The neck strike will slow the uke's rotation, and usually will cause a knee-buckling response (of it's own), in conjunction with a retreating action (away from the tori) depending on the direction of the neck strikes impact. These strikes should only be done with light to moderate impact during class practice (to prevent injury to the uke). The result/reaction from these strikes, amounts to a numb arm and moderate light headiness (when performed lightly) upon the uke.

As the student becomes more adept with this techniques execution, the addition of a kick, will add/create modifications that will need to be practiced with, before their application to/in an actual defensive situation. Depending on which leg of the aggressor is struck, different reactions, timings, as well as any possible follow-ups may, or may not be applicable.
Practice (as always) begins at a “slow” speed, until the tori is confident with the required actions. Practice speed can be increased so long as both parties are comfortable with doing so.

There are multiple follow-ups available, and student's are encouraged to experiment with discovering what would work best for them (be it Tuite, arm-locks or strikes) in varying circumstances.

Wednesday, December 27, 2017

Extended Arm's Defense

Extended Arm's Defense
This motion entails the student/defender (Tori) extending the arm on the same side as the aggressor's (Uke's) arm that is attempting to strike the Tori. The Tori should raise the arm directly, using the shoulder to motion the hand (not the elbow). This is the most efficient (and fastest) way for the Tori's hand to achieve this positioning. (Initially) whether the Tori's hand is raised to be on the "inside" or "outside" of the aggressor's (Uke's) striking arm is irrelevant. In either event, the Tori will "rotate" to face the threating action (in this case the "striking arm").
If/When the Tori's arm is raised to be on the "outer" (radial) side of the aggressor's striking arm, the Tori will rotate their (entire) body to "face" the opposite side of the Uke (the Uke's other/non-striking arm). When doing so, the Tori will motion their extended arm in conjunction with that "body-rotation". This means that as the student rotates, their extended arm remains directly in front of it's shoulder-joint.
This will motion the Uke's striking arm to the middle (if not opposite-side) of their own body.
This motion is initially practiced using either side (Left/Right Arm's) in regards to the Uke's striking arm.
Once the motion is understood, the Tori's 2nd arm (initially) is motioned towards the opposite-side of the student's body (crossing in-front of and thereby protecting the groin area). Pivoting at the elbow, the forearm is rotated to a vertical position and is then extended forward (commonly in the manner of a strike). These 2 motions are practiced in unison to create a defensive action that can provide protection for the entire torso. Though initially practiced by either arm being extended (with the other arm remaining close to the student's body), the student will commonly find that one-side will become their preferred manor of performing the defensive motion. The motion can easily be utilized to protect the Tori from a strike delivered by either of the Uke's arms (regardless of which arm the Tori prefers to be the extended arm).
Once the basic motion is understood (when utilized in either a Left or Right manner), the student will practice defending against a strike delivered by the Uke. The student should initially only use one-side (manner) of motion to practice until the motions are understood. The student can then practice using the other-side (arm). This additionally refer's to the Uke's striking arm (practice against 1 side at a time until that motion/defense application is understood).
Oyata commonly taught the concept of "Hand's before Feet". This saying becomes relavent when practicing this application. This is a "natural" occurrence, not one to strive for. The Tori need only focus on performing the desired "Foot-Work" (the hands will more commonly move to their greatest speed on their own). The accuracy of those motions improve with repeated practice (a "common" theme). When the Uke begin's their strike, the Tori will perform a "switch-foot" and step to the desired side (remember that this direction, is to the side opposite to the performed "Heel-Lift"). This should be done in conjunction to the Tori performing the Arm-Motions (simultaneously), though it should be expected for the arm-motions to be completed prior to the completion of the foot/leg motions (as this is the more common result).
As the Tori positions their forward (extended) hand at the Uke's "shoulder-level", It's commonly apparent as to "which" side of the Uke's striking arm/hand that the Tori's hand/arm has ended-up on. We'll begin with the response made, when the Tori's hand is raised to be on the outer-side of the Uke's striking arm. Regardless of where the Tori's hand initially makes contact, the Tori will begin to rotate their body so as to orientate to the intercepted limb towards the middle of the Uke's body. This "rotation" (of the Tori) will orientate the Tori's entire body (shoulder's and hip's) to "face" the Uke's non-striking side. This will place the Tori's extended hand at (approx.) the centerline of the Uke's body. Simultaneously, the Tori will raise their other (non-extended) hand close to their own body (crossing in front of the groin as a "cover") and continuing upward (pivoting at the elbow) until that forearm is vertical (In line with the shoulder).
The extended Left hand/arm will continue it's "parry" of the aggressor's arm in a downward direction (with the Tori's arm ceasing it's progression when it reaches the waist level of the Uke). The (now vertical) opposite arm will extend forward and can be used to (either) stike the Uke's neck, defend against the Uke's other arm (should it be utilized to attempt an additional strike), or used to aid in the capture/manipulation of the (originally) diverted (Uke's) arm.
The Tori's "primary" (extended) hand/arm can optionally be used to then control the Uke's extended "striking" arm, or be utilized to engage in another manner of technique application.
This motion should be practiced until the Student is comfortable with it's execution. At a later time (and once the student is comfortable with the motion, and has determined which side they are likely to utilize most often) the student can begin including a "Straight" kick with the execution of this motion.

Should the Tori's hand be raised to engage the Uke's striking arm on the "Medial" side, the Tori need only rotate their body (more so) towards the striking arm. The Tori's extended arm then begins motioning (slightly) more towards the outer-side and then begins lowering the Uke's (striking) arm. As was done in the previous example, the Tori's other arm will perform the same (basic) motions that were described for that example (circling upward until becoming vertical, then extending if/when necessary). The Tori's extended arm will continue it's downward progression (motioning the Uke's striking arm with it) and rotating their body (carrying the Uke's striking arm with it) until the Tori is (again) facing the Uke's non-striking side.

It should be noted that within both of these examples, the Tori's body is orientated to align the front of the body with the Tori's performed actions. At no time should (either of) the Tori's arm's be extended into the region "outside" of the shoulder's width. Arm motion performed in this region is noticeably "weaker/less efficient" and should generally be avoided.
Within any performed motion/action the student should (minimally) strive to utilize both arm's. Although the leg's should additionally be included with those motions, one should not attempt to perform "single/lone" limb application of a technique. There are numerous reasons for following this rule, but the student need only understand that it will allow the student to motion "faster" (if/when they do).

The orientation of one's body (at any given time) should become a conscious awareness that is steadily maintained. The alignment of the shoulder's and the hip's are what is commonly utilized for establishing the body's orientation at any given time. When this alignment is "off", the subject is "twisted", and is then considered to be in an unstable (and therefor susceptible) position.  

Tuesday, December 26, 2017

Fundamental Arm Motion 1

One our fundamental principles is that motions remain (naturally) side-orientated. This means that the Left arm deals with motions on the Left side of the body, and the Right hand/arm deals with those motions on the Right-side of the body. Though sounding "simplistic" it (evidently) is a foreign concept to most individuals. Inevitably when an aggressor delivers a punch (with either hand) student's will (initially) use their dominant hand (regardless of which side the Uke's strike is being delivered from) to respond to that strike. .
Oyata believed and taught that we should use the arm that is on the side that the strike is being delivered from (right arm for the aggressor's left-hand strike and vice versa). Aside from being faster, it is a more practical way to deal with one's defense. This principle is ingrained into our student's via their practice of the shown techniques.

Initial Arm Motion Practice
This practice introduces the student to the defensive principle of "Off-Body" (defensive) motion. The practice of this motion instills the concept of the defensive action occurring at a distance (away) from the student.
This motion begins with the hand motioning forward (at the motioning arm's shoulder) forward, and rising to shoulder height "Palm-Up". The hand then rotates (Palm-Inward) and moving to the student's center-line, and rotating to Palm-Down (bending at the arm's elbow to do so). When the hand reaches the center-line of the body, The hand and elbow are lowered to waist level. The hand then motions towards the outside of the student's body, stopping when again aligned with the shoulder (Palm-Out).
While performing this motion (with one arm), the student's other arm will perform a separate action.
That arm (what will be referred to as being the "near/close" arm) will motion across the body (providing a "groin cover" while doing so) and then raise (bending at the elbow to do so). That hand continues to rise until achieving a vertical positioning (again) "in-line" with it's own shoulder. The elbow and forearm will then be extended forward (as if/when "striking" with that forearm).
For the practice of "this" initial action, the arm is not extended. This practice is only intended to acclimate the student to the combined action performed by both arm's.
The student should focus on the extended arm performing it's motions off/away from the student's body. The secondary hand/arm's motions are (initially) performed "close" to the student's body.

When this basic motion is understood, the student will include the rotation of their body (to both the Left and Right) in conjunction with the performed actions. That "rotation" should be made so the student assumes a "back-stance" (initially).

Once the student is comfortable with the (entire) motion(s), they will begin practice of the motions in response to an aggressor (uke) performing "Striking" actions (1 of the 4 possible).
This practice represents the First Defensive Action Set.

Windmill/Bicycle Application
When the student begins their practice of the primary motions, they will commonly perform them in such a way as the motion fails to achieve the desired responses/positions being done by the uke. This is often compensated for by the tori repeating the action. This can occur several times, prior to the tori reversing the action/motion (and the repositioning of the tori) to then apply the defensive action.
This concept can be applied in either a sideways, or a forward manner. when performed sideways, it is referred to as being a "windmill"(as a Right/Left) action. When done as a forward/backward motion, it is called a "bicycle" motion.

It is most easily demonstrated with a Left inside parry followed by a Right outside parry (followed by another Left inside parry, and another Right outside parry, etc.). At an appropriate time, the motion is reversed, and the technique/application is again attempted. Exactly when the technique is reversed, is up to the tori (dictated by the circumstances).   

Monday, December 25, 2017

Oyata Te System Objective

Oyata Te System Objective(s) 

 The members/practitioner's of the Oyata Te System strive to continue with the further development of Taika Seiyu Oyata's Life-Protection System. This encompasses the refinement of the instructional methods and the procedures for conveying that information to the (other and additional) student's (Mudansha and Yudansha alike) of that methodology.
Member's shall seek to (mainly) increase their own knowledge of, and their understanding for, the art being practiced.
Those with greater understandings will share and convey that information (along with any concerns) so that it may be contested and/or confirmed by the other members.

In addition to the "Kyu" ranks, Oyata Te only recognizes the General Rank of "Yudansha" (For those member's who have graded within the catagory of "Black-Belt"). The system does not recognize individual "level's" of that grading. Every Yudansha will have equal consideration. Individual abilities are commonly recognized, so additional "ornaments" (I.E. "Ranks") are considered unnessessary, and are not utilized. The only differences between Yudansha is commonly with the amount of experience that the individual has with the other Yudansha within the system. There are no special "titles" utilized by anyone within this methodology.